Driving Chrysler's Bronze Blowtorch!
By: Michael Lamm
Photos by Roy Query
(Published in SIA #127 January/February 1992)
Thank you to Special Interest Autos magazine (now Hemmings Classic Cars) for letting me put this article here on the web.
Gas turbines go great if you know how to drive them. But most people don't. Including most auto journalists. They drive them like any other car. A gas-turbine engine develops maximum torque at stall. So if you want flashy acceleration from a turbine car. you drive it the way you would an automatic-transmissioned dragster. You sit at the line with your left foot firmly planted on the brake and your right foot holding the accelerator to the floor. The engine then whines its way up, and within a second or so the tach needle touches 52.000 rpm. At that point, you slip your left foot off the brake. There's no lag. The rear wheels start squealing, the car flies forward, and you're off on a royal ride.
Driven that way, the typical gas- turbine automobile will turn 0-60 mph in about 5.5 seconds and do the quarter mile in the 13s. Chrysler's fourth- generation gas turbine, coded A-83 1 and installed in Ghia-bodied, bronze- colored coupes that were built in 1962- 64, had the capability to turn figures of that sort. no problem.
It never occurred to most people who were lent the Chrysler-Ghia gas turbines back when they were new to drive them that way, though. Nor did Chrysler tell anyone:
So what happened was that a lot of people, including journalists, reported that gas turbines felt sluggish. If you drive a gas turbine the way you do an ordinary car, you get a very disconnected feeling. The drivetrain takes its sweet time reacting to the accelerator pedal. You're at a stop light with the turbine idling. The light turns green, you push the accelerator, and nothing happens at first. It takes a second or two for a gas turbine to build up engine revolutions. And then, since what amounts to the system's torque converter uses gases as its working fluid instead of oil, the car moves almost reluctantly. When prodded. 0-60 mph comes up in about 12 seconds.
Chrysler's retired chief engineer of research and development, George Huebner, told
me that back in 1963 he'd gotten complaints from people in San Francisco who'd been lent turbine cars for three-month
tests. Some said the turbines felt weak on San Francisco's steep hills. Piston-engined cars would climb the hills
Huebner made a special trip to that city and staged a demonstration drag race between one of the Ghia turbine cars, with himself behind the wheel, and one of Chrysler's more potent musclecars of that day, a big-block Dodge. This was on the streets of San Francisco. The turbine car easily outran the Dodge, and Huebner recalls that the turbine car became airborne at cross streets, just like Steve McQueen's Mustang in Bullitt.
I had driven a gas-turbine-powered automobile once before, in 1963, in downtown Los Angeles. Chrysler was in the midst of a massive field test and was distributing those now-famous 50 identical Ghia-bodied turbine coupes to private citizens all around the country. Chrysler's idea was to lend the 50 cars out for three months at a time to people in all walks of life. After each three- month trial, Chrysler would gather in- formation, sift reactions, and study how well gas turbines compared with conventional piston engines. Were they reliable? Could they compete in terms of performance and fuel economy? What were the various pros and cons? Most important: Would the public accept gas turbine automobiles either alongside or instead of conventional cars?
My boss, Motor Trend editor Chuck Nerpel, wasn't at all taken with gas turbines. He believed, in fact, that the whole Chrysler program was just a lot of PR hot air. Maybe that's why Chrysler invited Chuck to test-drive one of the bronze-colored Ghia coupes. This particular car was slated to be delivered to a clergyman in Pasadena the next day.
Chuck asked Jim Wright, Motor Trend's technical editor, and me to come along. I was the magazineís managing editor at the time. Each of us got to drive the turbine car around what I remember as being a couple of city blocks. It was too short a course to get much solid reaction to the car but we did form some impressions.
I remember all too well that the power train had a very rubber-band feel, like an old Buick Dynaflow, but worse. Mushy. Extremely. It was many years later that I learned about the torque stall trick and how to wind up the engine for maximum acceleration.
When Chuck got back to the office he banged out an editorial damning the automotive gas-turbine powerplant He talked about all the things wrong with it, concluding that he didn't see much future for gas turbines In motorcars And he's been right so far. But he might just not have looked far enough ahead Iíll talk about that in a moment.
Like Chuck's, my first impression of the Chrysler gas turbine wasnít all thrills and chills. I had the pleasure though, of driving another of Chryslerís gas turbine automobiles just recently again one of that same batch of bronze coupes. Unfortunately, I didn't get to drive it any differently this lime than during my first exposure in Los Angeles, but that's all right, because 1 approached the car with a great deal more respect
This second encounter took place at the Chrysler proving grounds near Chelsea, Michigan. Nine of the original 55 Ghia turbine cars still exist, ac cording to retired engineer and turbine historian George Stecher, the rest having been destroyed for legal and tax reasons. Five were originally kept by Chrysler Research for engineering evaluation and to take part in publicity activities. The other 50 were lent out to private individuals for field-testing. Of the nine that remain today, eight have had their engines removed. These eight are now in private collections and museums. Chrysler still owns three of the coupes, but only one currently runs. That's the one I drove at Chelsea. My co-pilot was Elmer Kiel, retired facilities coordinator of Chrysler's proving grounds.
The Chrysler-Ghia turbine cars like all others ever built, came with automatic transmissions. In all 55 cars the torque converter was removed, and the engine's working gases acted as a torque converter between the first and second turbine stages. They were, in effect driving toruses. Actually, the trans mission of a gas-turbine automobile needs only one speed forward and one reverse, although the Chrysler-Ghia turbine cars did use converterless TorqueFlite automatics with three for ward gears, all of which were put to work.
Anyway, at stall, these cars' fourth generation Chrysler gas turbines delivered 425 lb./ft. of torque an amount equal to a hefty V-8 at about 3.200 rpm. But if you drive the turbine as you would a normal car, which I was asked to do by Kiel and Chrysler for obvious reasons, you do get that manana feeling. It's still disappointing. Also, there's very little engine braking although this turbine does have a variable-nozzle stator ring interposed between the first- and second-stage turbines. This variable nozzle angles the expanding gases before they hit the second-stage power turbine and can put reverse thrust on it. That produces a little engine braking. 1 suppose without it there'd be even less, but there's not much as it is. Otherwise, the Bronze Blowtorch feels and reacts like any other American car of the early 1960s. Basically it looks and generally feels like a 1963 Thunderbird. Steering is slow and sloppy by today's standards; handling likewise.
There's one additional concern for those who might try whooshing around fast corners in a turbine-powered vehicle. If you go quickly into a comer and expect to power through with the throttle, you're in for a surprise. The turbine, remember, needs time to build up revs. In those few milliseconds while the engine spins up, if you're rounding a fast turn and need to hold the line with power to the rear wheels. by the time the turbine kicks in, you'll be down in the ditch. Not that that situation arises very often in normal, sensible driving, but it's something to be aware of.
Reports of the gas turbine's demise have according to George Huebner, been greatly exaggerated. Huebner, now 82, remains as lively an advocate - as firmly convinced - of the automotive gas turbine engine's future as he was during his long and distinguished career as Chrysler's chief research engineer. The acknowledged father of America's automotive gas turbine feels that this engine stands a better chance today than it did back when he sweated the details in the roaring turbine days of the 1950s, sixties, and seventies
Huebner attended his retirement party in 1975 and then went right back to work. A year after he left Chrysler, he began an eight-year stint with Volvo in Sweden, developing a small gas turbine for front-wheel-drive compacts. The result was a prototype turbine that weighed 25 percent less than an equivalent piston engine, delivered 100 horsepower, out-accelerated anything in its class, got 45 miles per gallon and had an amazingly clean exhaust. Volvo at that time had the gas turbine 5 two main problems, cost and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, just about beat.
In fact, former Chrysler engineer George Stecher told me that in 1981 toward the end of Chrysler Corporation's turbine program, they were running a seventh-generation gas turbine in a modified Dodge Mirada body and chassis. This car, in 1981, passed federal and California emissions standards that eventually went into effect for model-year 1989. That's one of the pluses of gas turbines: If you can shove enough air through them and run them hot enough, they run with an amazingly smog-free exhaust.
And in passing, other notable turbine achievements include Parnelli Jones coming within two laps of winning the 1967 Indy 500 In Andy Granatelli's ST? turbine-powered race car. Jones led the field for 198 out of 200 laps but ended up a DNF when the transmission failed Nine turbine cars entered Indy for 1968, three of them qualifying, but by then rules were so stringent that they didn't do much.
Vince Granatelli, Andy's son, built a turbine-powered Corvette in 1979. The engine for this conversion was originally designed to power an oil-field generator. It developed 880 bhp and delivered 1,160 lb./ft. of torque. Rpm was so high that at idle the Corvette was running 60 mph, and the only way it could be slowed in city traffic was with the brakes. Needless to say, performance was a little hairy
Connie Bouchard, long-time manager of Ford's gas-turbine program, now retired, told me that in the late 1950s Ford stuffed a non-regenerative Boeing aircraft gas turbine into a two-seater Thunderbird just to see what would happen. This marked the beginning of Ford's 20-year turbine program. The Thunderbird had lightning-fast acceleration. Bouchard told me, but it would also literally set fire to grass and weeds alongside the roadway.
Connie Bouchard, unlike Huebner, is not a believer in the gas turbine's automotive future. "The expenditure
of tens of millions of research dollars shows that gas turbines are misapplied in automobiles," he states.
Why? Because cars require an engine that de livers good fuel efficiency at low power levels. It's at low power
levels, after all where 85 percent to 90 percent of a person's driving takes place. Also, in my opinion, there
are insurmountable problems of cost and durability. Ceramic regenerators, for example, are extremely vulnerable
to stress, fatigue, and airborne grit.
General Motors began an active automotive gas-turbine program in 1951. GM released a series of turbine powered Firebird Motorama showcars in the mid- 1950s and currently, under Al Bell, continues research into auto motive turbines to this day. Al Bell does see a future for gas turbines in cars and trucks, especially with materials like improved ceramics, which allow higher operating temperatures.
The gas turbine engine is certainly very much alive in turbojet aircraft large helicopters, marine and stationary applications. The Patriot missiles that recently knocked down so many Scuds in Iraq and Israel were powered by gas turbine engines. Cruise missiles also use small gas turbines. Likewise the battle tanks of Operation Desert Storm.
Today, General Motors, Volvo, BMW, Peugeot, Renault, Toyota, Nissan, and Mitsubishi are all actively working on automotive gas turbines, trying to make them contentious with piston power plants. Trouble is, future turbines for automobiles can't just be as good as piston engines.' they have to be considerably better. That's because all automakers have such huge investments in piston engines that they arenít likely to change over for something that's only as good.
The gas turbine presents a number of advantages and problems, all of which have been reviewed and wrestled with
for decades. So far, the basic problems outweigh the advantages, but that mightn't always be. Here's a compendium
of the automotive gas turbine's pros and cons.
The gas turbine is an extremely simple engine and contains only 20 percent as many parts - moving or otherwise Ė as, say, a piston V-8. A turbine has no pistons. no valve crankshaft, camshaft, rockers, and so forth. There's also no radiator nor cooling system in the normal sense A turbine weighs a quarter to half as much as an equivalent V-8.
The turbine uses a very simple ignition system and only one spark plug (igniter). The igniter is important
for startup, but after that you really don't need it. Yet it's usually kept sparking at regular intervals and acts
as a pilot light to prevent hydrocarbon spikes after deceleration. Unlike a piston engine, a gas turbine never
needs tune-ups, never burns oil, can't "knock" or detonate, and never stalls out.
Nor do you have to wait for a gas turbine to warm up. It's ready to go immediately, at full power, even in subfreezing weather, and it instantly provides hot air to the passenger compartment.
A gas turbine can burn virtually any combustible fuel, so at least in theory, it could help wean a nation's
economy off fossil fuels. This type of powerplant also runs extremely cleanly. That's because it takes in about
five times as much oxygen as it needs in order to run. The extra oxygen disposes of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon
monoxide, And by running lean mixtures, the air's nitrogen and oxygen don't disassociate as in piston engines.
so NOx aren't a problem. All of which makes the gas turbine a real contender in the smog war.
A gas turbine runs very smoothly. There's no vibration and almost no noise. The regenerators act as mufflers, and while a turbine's exhaust pipes have to be much larger than normal ones, the engine needs no mufflers, resonators, or catalytic converters.
Now comes the minus side. Some of the gas turbine's handicaps are as follows: Materials are relatively expensive so far, and it's more costly to machine turbine components than parts for piston engines. Cost has always been the gas turbine's main stumbling block.
We've talked about turbine lag and the lack of engine braking. Gas turbine efficiency, which translates as fuel efficiency, increases in direct proportion to running temperature. Lousy fuel mileage, especially at part throttle, used to hamper early automotive gas turbines, but with modern materials better able to cope with high temperatures, that's not the problem it used to be.
However, materials that withstand high heat and don't distort still tend to be exotic and expensive. Clearances
are critical in a gas turbine, so expansion rates of different metals, ceramics, and combinations have to be compatible.
That can again lead to high manufacturing costs. The expense factor hasn't been licked yet, but according to GM's
A' Bell, it's now more a matter of refinement than inventing new technologies.
Another caution, as Connie Bouchard indicated, has to do with air intake. Gas turbines gulp huge volumes of air, and that air has to be clean. Any airborne grit can mess up internal clearances in a big hurry. So filtration can't miss even the tiniest micron of dust. Apparently that's no longer a huge problem, though, as we saw on the TV news when US military tanks, powered by turbines, had no problem with all that desert sand in the atmosphere.
To understand how an automotive gas turbine works, think of it as a blowtorch and three fans. The blowtorch nozzle stands inside a big tube. Behind the blowtorch, at one end of the tube, the first fan - we'll call it the compressor forces in great gobs of air. Light the blowtorch and some of the oxygen in the air burns. This dramatically expands the volume of gases downwind from the blowtorch and the force of that expansion drives a second fan, one that's attached by a shaft to the compressor. Engineers call the second fan the compressor turbine. These two fans share a common shaft, so the faster the compressor turbine spins, the faster it turns the compressor and the more air enters the combustion chamber.
Just beyond the compressor turbine, separated by a gap with no mechanical connection at all. is a third fan. This third fan is called the power turbine, and it's the one that moves the car. Hot gases flow past the compressor turbine, hit the power turbine, and make them both spin at very high speed. The typical gas turbine idles at about 8.000 rpm and turns roughly 50,000 rpm at full throttle. Reduction gears with about a 10:1 ratio reduce the power turbine's rpm to a range that's usable in an automobile.
Now that's basically all there is to an automotive gas turbine, but there are a couple of refinements you ought to know about. First, let's talk about the regenerator. Most gas turbines for cars - and Chrysler built seven generations between 1949 and 1981 - use two spinning regenerators that catch hot exhaust gases after they've done most of their work. The regenerators are geared to the compressor shaft and turn at a speed that lets them transfer exhaust heat efficiently to the incoming fresh-air stream. By timing the speed of the regenerator, engineers can keep exhaust gases from catching weeds on fire but, at the same time, add that other- wise wasted energy to the intake air so _ it begins to expand the working charge even before it reaches the burner ("blowtorch"). The regenerator, as I mentioned, is one of the big breakthroughs in gas-turbine technology.
The second refinement of note is a device known as a variable nozzle, or variable-pitch diverter ring. This
is a finned hub that stands between the two _ driven turbines. It doesn't spin. but its internal blades can change
pitch. The idea is to re-angle the blades inside this nozzle so they direct hot gases onto the power turbine in
controlled ways. For example, when you want maximum acceleration, the blades lie so the expanded gases are directed
at nearly 90 degrees to the blades on the power turbine. But when you want engine braking, which normally isn't
a feature of gas turbines, you can angle the fins so that gas hits the power turbine from behind, slowing it down.
The mechanism that controls the diverter-ring pitch can be mechanical as. for instance, by a rod on the throttle
linkage, or electronic, with sensors and microprocessors.
Credit for most of the pioneering work on gas turbines, everyone acknowledges, goes to George Huebner, and he's certainly the central figure in this drama of the Chrysler-Ghia turbine coupes.
George J. Huebner Jr. was born in Detroit in 1910, attended high school there and in St. Louis, got his degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1932, and joined Chrysler immediately after graduation. He soon found himself working with Carl Breer in Chryslerís mechanical engineering research laboratory, doing testing and development. In 1936, Huebner became a production engineer for Plymouth Division, but four years later he returned to Chrysler Research as a project engineer and coordinator of re _ search programs.
During World War II, Huebner took charge of one of Chrysler's more ambitious military development programs, the creation of a 2.250-cid. V-16 air- craft engine for the Republic P-47H fighter plane. Huebner's responsibilities included engine development, installation in the aircraft, modification of the plane itself, and final testing. The original P-47 Mustang had an air-cooled radial engine, so the V-16 took some shoehorning.
It was during the war, working with aircraft, that Huebner became interested in the then-new concept of gas turbines. An Englishman named Whit- tie had developed the first turboprop airplane in 1939. Huebner read everything he could about gas turbines and then began thinking ahead to the possibility of adapting one to ground vehicles. Nobody had done that before.
"I started initial explorations in the mid-1940s, before the end of the war," Huebner told me. "The first design studies took place around 1944. Those studies were submitted to the military and, as a result, Chrysler received a contract in early 1945 from the US Navy for a regenerative gas-turbine engine." This was to power anti-sub- marine aircraft. Huebner spearheaded that project and, on the side, began tinkering with an automotive gas turbine.
The reason gas turbines perform so successfully in aircraft, boats, missiles, and as stationary powerplants is because there they can be run almost constantly at wide-open throttle. This is very different from automotive use, where an engine's rev range changes from moment to moment. And by the nature of the beast, gas turbines tend to be more efficient wide open than at part throttle.
Another given is that the hotter you can run a gas turbine, the more fuel-efficient it becomes. As noted, turbine efficiency increases with working temperature. But too much heat can get out of hand.' can cause everything from NOx to metal distortion to internal meltdowns to, as Ford's Connie Bouchard pointed out, toasted toes on passing pedestrians.
High fuel consumption and excess heat were two early problems Huebner had to contend with. The breakthrough came with the development of a ceramic, spinning, Ferris-wheel-like regenerator, which Huebner developed and co-patented in 1949. The regenerator takes heat from a turbine engine's exhaust stream and returns some of it to the inrushing air. That does three things: 1) It makes the gas turbine's internal temperature controllable, 2) it adds to the engine's working efficiency by preheating the incoming air, adding energy to the combustion process, and 31 by returning this free energy. it boosts the gas turbine's fuel efficiency.
The idea of the regenerator wasn't entirely new even when Huebner applied it to the gas turbine. Static preheaters had long been used in blast furnaces to help refine iron ore. Huebner became familiar with a similar air preheater manufactured by the Swiss firm Brown-Boveri, a device called the Velox boiler.
At that time, in the late 1940s and early fifties, Huebner's research-and- development staff consisted of a dozen or so engineers, and their workload was staggering. Throughout the 1940s, gas turbines had to settle for R&D's back burner, because Chrysler's more pressing projects included the development of the 1951 hemi V-8, the refinement of power steering, development of the TorqueFlite automatic transmission, work on fuel injection, electric vehicles, and several other experimental agendas. And yet gas-turbine development continued apace.
"I wore two hats in those days, comments Huebner. I had the title chief engineer of research and also executive engineer of Chrysler's missiles and space operation, and I worked 14- 15 hours a day, including Saturdays and Sundays. One of Huebner's young engineers on the gas turbine project was Sam B. Williams, who later went on to found Williams International Inc., of Walled Lake, Michigan, a company that currently manufactures turbines for cruise missiles.
There's an article in SIA for June 1980 that very nicely summarizes Chrysler's entire automotive gas- turbine program. so ifs not necessary to repeat all those details here (see Yesterday's Car of the Future. SIA #57). Suffice it to say that from 1954 through 1981. Chrysler built 77 gas-turbine automobiles plus any number of experimental engines. The estimated total expenditure came to $23.8 million Government grants and contracts covered some of this, but Chrysler Corp. bore the brunt of the cost.
Chrysler's turbine program climaxed in 1963 with the construction of the 55 identical, Elwood Engel-designed, Ghia bodied, metallic bronze coupes Huebner puts the cost of each car at between $50,000 and $55,000. Virtually nothing interchanged between these 55 turbine cars and production Chrysler vehicles. The only similarities I could find were some switches on the instrument panel.
"People called them Ghia cars." notes Huebner, but Ghia built just the bodies. The body was designed in the US, the steel was shipped from the US as was the glass, all the upholstery and the only thing Ghia did was hand form the bodies. They pounded, without dies, fenders and body panels into the prescribed shapes. The rest - every bit of it - was all built here, and you have to remember that there wasn't one significant item on those cars that inter changed with anything else. Even the paint was special.
"We put those cars together in a small, rented assembly plant on Greenfield Road in Detroit," Huebner continues. "It was a powerplant branch of Chrysler Research.... There was enough room in that plant to assemble the turbine engines and the chassis The bodies were shipped in from Italy already trimmed, and were married to the chassis in our plant.
"The turbine cars used unit construction with a front sub-frame. The sub-frame was an experiment suggested by our chassis design people, who wanted to assess the value and cost of a totally isolated front suspension. It was very successful but also very costly, and the concept was never put into production [at Chrysler] because of the cost. But there wasn't any cost cutting on the turbine cars. Those 55 coupes were probably the most completely custom-built automobiles ever constructed at any time anywhere."
There were about 160 people involved at that time on all phases of the turbine project, including engine development car assembly, and logistics. Huebnerís staff had the first bronze coupe running in early 1962. It took 10 - 11 months to finish all 55 turbine cars.
As mentioned, of the 55 cars built, five remained with Chrysler Research, and the other 50 went out into private hands. Chrysler announced its intention to lend out the 50 cars to private individuals on May 14,1963. Within six weeks, 30.000 volunteers had sent in unsolicited requests. Exactly 203 drivers were chosen from all walks of life and all parts of the country. Twenty-three were women, the rest men. Each received the free, unrestricted use of a turbine car for three months. at the end of which time the vehicle went on to the next individual. The public test pro gram began on October 29,1963 and ended 27 months later.
The first of the five Research cars went out on loan to Chrysler's International Division. The idea was to fly the car to different nations for publicity and testing purposes. One of Its first stops was Mexico, where that country's president, Adolfo Lopez Mateos, was an auto enthusiast. Lopez Mateos asked if he might be allowed to drive the turbine car. Not only did he want to drive it he asked that the turbine be fueled with that great Mexican resource, tequila!
Huebner had mentioned in press interviews that gas turbines would run on any free-flowing combustible liquid Now, hearing of Lopez Mateos's request he quickly had Chrysler Purchasing buy two gallons of tequila. Huebner poured this into the fuel tank of a lab engine. The lab turbine fired up immediately and ran fine. So Huebner gave the Mexican president his blessing. The turbine ran great on tequila just as it had on methanol, ethanol diesel fuel, white gas, and even Chanel #5, another odd fuel someone had poured into the tank of one of these cars.
Of the other 50 cars in private hands ...the main purpose was to see whether the American public would accept a complete change in its powerplant, This was the big question, and it still is says George Huebner. Other goals of the program included publicity for the gas turbine, along with field testing for fuel mileage, reliability, flexibility durability, and possible unforeseen problems.
After the turbine experiment ended in January 1966, the final consensus turned out to be highly favorable. Most volunteers said they would buy a turbine car if one were put on the market at a competitive price. No one suffered any major problems: no explosions nothing burnt or singed, no one stranded. Actually the experiment went amazingly well.
In Chrysler's debrieflngs, there grumblings about fuel mileage and sluggish acceleration. However, these complaints were largely offset by comments that the turbine would burn less expensive fuels than gasoline. As per Chrysler's instructions, most people used diesel #2 or white gasoline. Regular pump gasoline could be substituted in a pinch, but the tetraethyl lead tended to erode turbine fins, so it wasn't recommended.
Immediately after this massive experiment, Chrysler sought earnestly to put a turbine car into production. "We had the tooling," recounts Huebner: "had bought the tools and laid out the production line for a much larger run of vehicles. Those would have appeared as 1966 models. So it became a serious project. Very serious, and it remained serious through 1973 and '74. There were still plans to bring out a limited production run of vehicles. The NOx problem had been put to rest, and the production vehicles would have been successful. The problem was, though, that Chrysler Corp. went sort of broke at that point. The money ran out."
That put a definite crimp in Huebner's production plans. Other factors soon got in the way: the Arab oil embargo. Chrysler's need to downsize and re-engineer cars for front-wheel drive, and the US economy in general. Huebner retired in 1975, and there went Chrysler's staunchest advocate of gas turbines. An era had ended. And it might be a while before we see its likes again.
Our thanks to George Huebner, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Albert H. Bell III and George Stecher. Warren, Michigan: Connie Bouchard, Birmingham, Michigan: T.C. Brown and Elmer S. Kiel. Chelsea, Michigan: and Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, Michigan.
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Last updated 9/5/2006
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